Abstract—The past participle can be used as an adjective in all the positions and functions of a typical adjective; thus, many past participles can come before or after nouns, just as many adjectives can. Basically, past participles on their own can be used as attributive use whereas past participles with complementation normally require postposition. However, in many cases postposition is allowed even if the past participle is used on its own without any complementation (e.g., The issues raised are more diverse and just as difficult./ The grapes produced are very small.). The postpositive participles in such examples designate temporary as opposed to permanent attributes. However, this area of English grammar is not well described in dictionaries and grammar books and often causes troubles for learners of English. In this paper, I focus on the postpositive past participles used on their own in order to modify the preceding nouns and identify the most typically used past participles as well as the preceding nouns. The contextual features and functions of these structures are also explored.
Index Terms—Postpositive past participles, corpus-driven, frequency and distribution, contextual features.
Y. Furuta is with Shikoku University, Tokushima, 771-1192 Japan(e-mail: y-furuta@shikoku –u.ac.jp).
Cite: Yae Furuta, "Postpositive Past Participles Used on Their Own," International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 514-519, 2012.