—Cook’s multi-competence model is taken as a basis
for an approach to English education, taking advantage of biand
multilingual learners’ competences in other languages. This
perspective mirrors what happens in English as lingua franca
(ELF) situations and also in approaches to literacy education. In
the latter, learners bring to the learning their pre-existing skills,
knowledge and attitudes. Further, in the present digital age,
learners frequently possess higher digital literacies than
teachers, partly because they engage with electronic media and
communication channels in their normal lives, which again is
part of new multilingual and transnational online cultures.
While traditional types of language learning are recommended
to be maintained, the utility of bringing local language and
literacy practices together with learners’ own knowledge and
skills is recommended for current and future learning of
English. It is suggested that this approach is appropriate for
new digital and other literacies relevant to modern information
processing and communications technology.
—English as lingua franca, learning, literacy,
Howard Doyle is with the Dept. of International Studies, Kochi
University, Japan (e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org).
Cite: Howard Doyle, " Multi-Competence, ELF, Learning and Literacy: A
Reconsideration," International Journal of Social Science and Humanity vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 887-891, 2015.