—In 1229 CE, following the signing of the Treaty of Jaffa
by Ayyubid Sultan al-Kamil and Emperor Frederick II, Jerusalem
passed into the hands of the Crusaders who then went on to rule it for
the next ten years. The aim of this article is to present a critical
analysis of the historical narratives of both Muslim and non-Muslim
historians who continue to interpret al-Kamil’s decision to hand the
holy city over to the Crusaders as an act of collaboration with them. I
shall attempt to answer the following questions. Did Sultan al-Kamil
really offer to give Jerusalem to Emperor Frederick II in return for his
support? To what extent was al-Kamil’s decision a strategic attempt to
suppress the Sixth Crusade? What was the outcome of the Treaty of
Jaffa? And how did Muslims and non-Muslims regard it?
—Jerusalem, Sultan al-Kamil, emperor frederick II,
the sixth crusade.
Maher Y. Abu-Munshar is with the Qatar University, Qatar (e-mail:
Cite:Maher Y. Abu-Munshar, "Sultan al-Kamil, Emperor Frederick II and the
Submission of Jerusalem," International Journal of Social Science and Humanity vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 443-447, 2013.