IJSSH 2013 Vol.3(5): 443-447 ISSN: 2010-3646
DOI: 10.7763/IJSSH.2013.V3.279

Sultan al-Kamil, Emperor Frederick II and the Submission of Jerusalem

Maher Y. Abu-Munshar
Abstract—In 1229 CE, following the signing of the Treaty of Jaffa by Ayyubid Sultan al-Kamil and Emperor Frederick II, Jerusalem passed into the hands of the Crusaders who then went on to rule it for the next ten years. The aim of this article is to present a critical analysis of the historical narratives of both Muslim and non-Muslim historians who continue to interpret al-Kamil’s decision to hand the holy city over to the Crusaders as an act of collaboration with them. I shall attempt to answer the following questions. Did Sultan al-Kamil really offer to give Jerusalem to Emperor Frederick II in return for his support? To what extent was al-Kamil’s decision a strategic attempt to suppress the Sixth Crusade? What was the outcome of the Treaty of Jaffa? And how did Muslims and non-Muslims regard it?

Index Terms—Jerusalem, Sultan al-Kamil, emperor frederick II, the sixth crusade.

Maher Y. Abu-Munshar is with the Qatar University, Qatar (e-mail: m.abumunshar@qu.edu.qa).

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Cite:Maher Y. Abu-Munshar, "Sultan al-Kamil, Emperor Frederick II and the Submission of Jerusalem," International Journal of Social Science and Humanity vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 443-447, 2013.

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